Iron is a major problem in underground water (Borehole and WellPoint); agricultural use of water with high iron content causes irrigation equipment and drippers to clog up and eventually needs replacement. It also suppresses crop, vegetation and plant growth. Domestic use of water with iron content will stain walls, laundry, baths, basins, toilets, and affect foods and beverage taste.
Water with iron content will be seen as red discoloured water and forms insoluble rust particles.
Concentrations above 0.3 mg/litre can cause staining over time, therefore the recommended limit for iron in water for irrigation equipment and drinking water is 0.3 mg/litre.
Maximum allowed limits according to SANS 241, 2001 is: 0.2 - 2 mg /litre.
Correct use of the IRONOX Process will reduce iron content in water to 0.1 – 0.4mg/lit.
The IRONOX water treatment Process works effectively to remove excessive iron. It also improves water colour and prevent growth of algae and fungi in water. This is an excellent Process to benefit crop, vegetation, general irrigation and drinking water.
*This is a process we design and install, not packaged product ; The cost of this Process could start around R20k for the basic treatment excluding R/O
Water is pumped from the borehole through the IRONOX system for treatment and removal of iron. Oxidation and Adsorption are used to remove excessive iron effectively from borehole water. An automatic backwash system ensures continuous self-cleaning of the IRONOX system. Sandfiltration or 200 micron pre-filtration is recommended to prevent sand and big particles from the system.
The IRONOX-xf water treatment system can treat water with an iron content of up to 100 mg / litre.
Standard applications Total Iron = 10: (Intermittent flow)
IRONOX-10 (Treats up to 10m³ / day)
IRONOX-48 (Treats up to 48m³ / day)
IRONOX-84 (Treats up to 84m³ / day)
IRONOX-172 (Treats up to 172m³ / day)
(Applications with high Iron content and bigger volumes are possible, and require specialised design)
Iron in Water - The perils of too much iron
Iron is one of the most troublesome elements in water supplies. Making up at least 5 percent of the earth’s crust, iron is one of the earth’s most plentiful resources. Rainwater as it infiltrates the soil and underlying geologic formations dissolves iron, causing it to seep into aquifers that serve as sources of groundwater for wells. Although present in drinking water, iron is seldom found at concentrations greater than 10 milligrams per liter (mg/l) or 10 parts per million. However, as little as 0.3 mg/l can cause water to turn a reddish brown color.
Iron is mainly present in water in two forms: either the soluble ferrous iron or the insoluble ferric iron. Water containing ferrous iron is clear and colorless because the iron is completely dissolved. When exposed to air in the pressure tank or atmosphere, the water turns cloudy and a reddish brown substance begins to form. This sediment is the oxidized or ferric form of iron that will not dissolve in water.
While not hazardous to health, iron is considered a secondary or aesthetic contaminant.
Concentrations of iron as low as 0.5 mg/l will leave reddish brown stains on walls, paving, fixtures and laundry that is very hard to remove. When deposits break loose from water piping, rusty water will flow through the faucet. Within appearance sensitive industries such as facilities management, iron stains can degrade a facility’s image; and within an agricultural environment, iron can cause irrigation equipment and drippers to become clogged, speeding up the replacement cycle.
When iron exists along with certain kinds of bacteria, problems can become even worse. To survive, the bacteria utilize the iron, leaving behind a reddish brown or yellow slime that can clog plumbing and cause an offensive odor. This slime is noticeable in irrigation equipment, tanks and plumbing.
Since iron combines with different naturally occurring organic materials, it may also exist as an organic complex. The combination of naturally occurring organic material and iron can be found in shallow wells and surface water. This type of iron is usually yellow or brown but may be colorless.
Possible treatment solutions should begin with a test for iron concentration. Water Solutions International offers free tests within the Cape Town area and could refer you to suitable service providers in other regions.
Improve your Water :
Reverse Osmosis (R/O) remove 95-99 percent of total dissolved solids (TDS), as well as chlorine, fluoride and other impurities; by doing so, it greatly improve the odour, appearance, and overall taste of your water.
Improve health by increasing Water Consumption:
By improving the taste of your water, many families have noticed that they were drinking more water and consuming less sugary drinks.
Impact on Food:
It appears that many restaurants install R/O system as cooking with a filtered water that is free of impurities can dramatically impact the flavor of most recipes.
The R/O filtration process uses very little to no energy.
An R/O filtration system can produce outstanding filtered water for less then the current cost per litres in a shop.
While some water filtration/purification systems are complicated to maintain, an R/O system is very easy.
Simply change the filters and membranes (check how to do that on your system’s manual or Call us). The frequency at which you need to change your spares depends on the quality of your water coming into the system. We highly recommend a proper Pre-Filtration to guarantee the quality and life spend of our Water Plants.
The small pores of an RO system can become clogged if not properly maintained and (once again) pre-filtration is critical.
The reverse osmosis process is not immediate, it operates by using water (pressurised) to push through a semi-permeable membrane. If you use a large amount of filtered water and empty out the system’s holding tank, you will have to allow time for the Treatment Plant to refill the tank.
Although this system can produce clean water at better prices then bottled water, there is the ongoing expense of filter replacements.
R/O systems are virtually maintenance free, but ideally one should get it cleaned and sterilised once a year.
Severe water contamination in rivers, dams and boreholes is a big health risk for consumption, washing and even irrigation purposes. Contaminated water will often smell and taste appalling and be discoloured. Unwanted bacteria, pathogens and viruses can also be present.
Ideal Microbiological specification for drinking water: (SANS 241)
Total Coliform bacteria = Nil
Faecal Coliforms bacteria = Nil
E.Coli (Escherichia Coli) = Nil
Total Microbial Activity / Heterotrophic Plate Count = 100 / ml
The PROCESS water treatment system uses Ozone or (UV) Ultraviolet Light to sterilise the water.
Ozone is a molecule consisting of three oxygen atoms linked together. Ozone gas releases activated oxygen that reacts with the cell membranes of bacteria and viruses. There are no bacteria or viruses that are resistant to Ozone, as it acts as an Oxidant of Protoplasm. Ozone is generated on site and requires no maintenance.
UV operates at 264 nanometres, which is known as the Germicidal Spectrum. UV is a proven solution to harmful pathogen problems. Various filter media is used together with Ozone and UV to effectively remove unwanted organic contaminants from water which are often responsible for taste, odour, and colour problems. The PROCESS water treatment systems will improve water from a polluted source into pure and healthy drinkable water.
No maintenance required
No filters to be cleaned / replaced
Improves smell, taste and colour
Destroys harmful bacteria, viruses and pathogensTechnical
Water is pumped from the water source into a treatment tank. Ozone is distributed to react with cell membranes for oxidising and sterilising unwanted pollutants. Alternatively, UV can be used to treat water before it is distributed. Filter media will be used according to particles and pollution levels found in the water.
A manual or automatic backwash system flushes the filter media to maintain the treatment system.
Only the best quality Ozonators and Ultraviolet Lights and used to ensure consistent treatment.
Standard Ozone and UV units are available for various water problems. Contact us to specify and cost your treatment system according to your specific application and needs.